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Cloud Computing 2018

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Java Language and Commercial Development Platforms

Java Platform and Language

Developed in the early 1990ís over a four year period by Sun Microsystems, Java was introduced in 1995 as a write-once run-anywhere programming language. Java was designed to be: 1- object oriented, 2- secure, 3- architecture neutral, 4- portable, 5- high performance, 6- interpreted, threaded, and dynamic. It was well received and the leading web browsers incorporated the ability to run Java applets within web pages. In 2006, Sun Microsystems initiated the release of Java as open source software under the terms of the GNU GPL: General Public License and in 2007 completed the process making all of Java's core code available under free software and open source distribution terms.

Specific configurations of Java were developed for different platforms:

Java SE: Standard Edition Develop and deploy Java applications on desktops and servers in embedded and real-time environments.
Java EE: Enterprise Edition An API and runtime environment for developing and running enterprise software, including network and web services, and other large-scale, multi-tiered, scalable, reliable, and secure network applications.
Java ME: Micro Edition A flexible development environment for applications running on mobile and embedded devices: mobile phones and personal digital assistants.

Sun Microsystems made the decision to differentiate the JRE: Java Run-time Environment from the SDK: Software Development Kit. The compiler, utility programs, and header files are not included in the JRE. In 2009, Oracle Corporation acquired Java along with open source Solaris and MySQL from Sun Microsystems. 1

Java EE has wide global acceptance and the JCP: Java Community Process has promoted more than 20 compatible implementations. Java continues to be  updated to meet new standards and requirements. Java EE applications are being coded for lighter weight application servers and rewritten as cloud-native runtimes and frameworks. Microservices are being developed using Java EE. 

Java versions 9, 10, and 11 provide type inferences and syntactic changes. This makes coding Java programs more like the C and C# languages and improves readability. Java 9 and higher includes jdeprscan. This helps identify deprecated APIs in code and dependencies; compilation warnings will be generated. Java 11 is the first LTS: Long Term support release. Oracle will be providing security and bug-fixing for Java 11 until at least 2026. The next LTS release after Java 11 is not scheduled to be released until September 2021

Specialized Java configurations brought to market include:

Java for Business Product subscription model designed to extend Oracle Corporation's support periods for releases, provide faster access to technology updates and offer enterprise deployment features for customers using Java SE technology.
Java Technology - Embedded Provides the capability to develop reliable, portable, and secure applications for embedded systems.
JavaFX Graphics and media package for designing, creating, and testing rich client applications. There is an updated version of the flexible development environment for applications running on mobile and embedded devices: mobile phones and personal digital assistants.
Java DB The open source Apache Derby Java technology database supported by Oracle Corporation / Sun Microsystems.

In an effort to make it easier to adopt, Oracle has made JavaFX available as a separate module. Starting with the release of JDK: Java Development Kit 11, it will be its own module. Java FX will be supported in JDK 8 through 2022.

In 2017, Oracle Corporation moved Java EE to the Eclipse Foundation to apply a community-based governance approach that fosters collaboration and innovation. The Java Community Process will not be involved in deciding technical specifications for future iterations of Java EE. Instead, the Eclipse Foundation will be creating a new specification. As part of this process, Java EE has been rebranded to highlight the differences from the previous enterprise Java architecture.  In February 2018, Java EE was renamed to Jakarta EE. There will be a compatibility logo, and certification process. Access will be provided to the TCK: Technology Compatibility Kits.

According to the JVM Ecosystem Survey reported by - January 2019, 79 percent of developers use Java 8, 4 percent use Java 9, and 4 percent use Java 10.

JDK: Java Development Kit

The JDK is a development environment for building applications and components using the Java programming language. Java Platform Module System is a named self-describing collection of code and data. It provides an optional link time phase between compile and run-time for assembly and optimization into a custom run-time image. Options have been added to the javavc, jlink, and Java tools for specifying the module definition paths.  The modular JAR has a module-info class in its root directory. The JMOD is a packaging format which includes native code and configuration files. The JDK has been divided into a set of configurable required modules. The JDK and JRE run-time images have been restructured to accomodate modules and improve performance, security, and maintainability. Most of the JDK's internal APIs are inaccessible by default, a few essential widely used internal APIs remain accessible until supported replacements exist for all or most of their functionality. The command jdcps -jdkinternals can be run to determine if code uses internal JDK APIs.

There is a URL definition scheme for naming modules, classes, and resources stored in a run-tim image; it does not disclose the internal structure or format of the image. The endorsed standards override and extension mechanism have been removed. The rt.jar and tools.jar have been removed from the Java run-time image. There is a simplified version-string format to distinguish major, minor, security, and patch update releases.

JDK 10 is an implementation of the Java Standard Edition 10 concetrating on cloud and serverless computing. Improvements were made to include local variable types, there also were garbage collection and compilation enhancements. JDK was a short-term release with public updates for six months. JDK 11 is available as a three year LTS: long term support version.

Java Programming

The Java Development Kit contains the software and tools for compiling, debugging, and running applets and applications written in the Java language. The primary components are javac, jar, and the archiver which packages related class libraries into a single JAR file. The JDK assists in managing JAR files: javadoc - the documentation generator, jdb - the debugger, jps- the process status tool, javap - the class file dissassembler, and other components. The JDK comes with a complete JRE: Java Run-time Environment which is a private run-time of a JVM: Java Virtual Machine and all of the class libraries present in the production environment. There also are internationalization and IDL libraries for use by developers.

Multithreading is the capability for a program to perform several tasks simultaneously within a program. While other programming languages have to call operating system procedures in order to enable multithreading, this capability has been included in the Java base code. The cpus: central processing units of the new generation of computer hardware have 2, 4, or 6 cores and many servers have multiple processing units. Applications coded with the Java language have significant advantages in using multitasking to present and control sounds, images, graphics, video, and animation. The Java language and specialized SDKs are being used in multimedia applications.

The Java language is being used for:

  • the programmatic integration of databases, web servers, and user agents.

  • enterprise web development and Internet programming.

  • developing front end and GUI: graphical user interface applications.

  • managing and extending middleware - IBM MQ and to a lesser degree open source JBoss.

  • implementing application modernization as part of SOA: service oriented architecture.
  • mobile device and smartphone application development - base code, SDKs, and tools.
  • supporting DevOps and hybrid cloud development.
  • microservices and container-based environments orchestrated by Kubernetes.

In most situations, organizations have elected to utilize Java in hybrid combinations with commercial software: web servers, databases, middleware and enterprise development. The leading commercial Java web server and development platforms are IBM WebSphere / Rational and Oracle Corporation WebLogic Server / Oracle Application Server and WebLogic / JDeveloper. Java competes with the commercial Microsoft .NET development platform. Decisions will have to made whether to migrate client/server C++ and Visual Basic applications to .NET, Java, or other open source or hybrid platforms. A similar decision based upon different assumptions will apply to legacy mainframe applications: web servicization, recoding, application migration, or platform migration.

With Eclipse Foundation managing Java EE, organizations will be able to adopt more agile processes, implement flexible licensing, and change the governance process. The Eclipse Foundation has other open source projects and a community-based governance approach. This allows for greater collaboration on projects and rapid innovation. Oracle also has made changes in the Java SE and JDK release cycle in an effort to make the releases more agile instead of features-driven. The plan is to put out a major release every six months. Update releases will continue to be released every quarter, and long term support releases come out every three years.

Java Training by SYS-ED

For the past twenty years, SYS-ED has been providing Java training for Fortune 1000 companies, government municipalities, and healthcare providers as they designed and coded enterprise applications. We are now taking a leading role in providing open source and commercial Java courses and training programs required to apply the new methodologies and advancements in information technology infrastructure: virtualization, cloud computing, and mobile computing.

SYS-EDís Java curriculum teaches:

Java Training Services How to migrate databases for an efficient and safe implementation of JDBC.
Java Training Services How to implement the infrastructure and code for high volume database transactions and data redundancy.
Java Training Services How to repurpose and leverage the existing investment in mainframe systems software: TCP/IP, DB2, XML, CICS Transaction Server, and COBOL applications.
Java Training Services Open systems and third party utilities and frameworks - Swing, Struts, JUnit, JUnitPerf, JDBC, Hibernate, and Maven - which will streamline the coding, reduce the time spent debugging, and enhance extensibility.
Java Training Services How to implement Java solutions that have the capability to co-exist and eventually interoperate with Microsoftís .NET platform.
Java Training Services Java as a modern cloud-native development architecture.
Java Training Services The MicroProfile Eclipse open source specification for enterprise Java microservices.

SYS-EDís Java training affords an organization the opportunity to cross train staff and save the time and expense of hiring new personnel. We donít just present the Java programming language; we explain, demonstrate, and teach. When a client employee completes a SYS-ED Java course, that individual will have a uniform approach to programs and servlets: designing, coding, and debugging.

Specialized Java Training Services

SYS-ED recognizes and differentiates between industry standard content and educational consulting. As part of qualifying an assignment, we review a prospective client's project specifications, inventory of code, and documentation standards and then select the examples, sample programs, and exercises best suited to address specific training objectives. If necessary, we will create new examples and tailored workshops.

Java Lightweight Frameworks JEE and Web Services Standards
JEE Connector Architecture WebSphere and Rational Enterprise Application Development
Oracle WebLogic Server Convergence

At the client discretion, assessment validation can be provided. After a course is over, students are welcome to submit the Java questions which come up back on the job.

Courseware for Teaching

The courseware used in SYS-ED courses consists of student handouts, industry-specific examples, and exercises. At the client discretion an industry standard textbook can be augmented with presentation slides. The CETi knowledge base aggregates and analyzes information in the public domain. It also is a service for reviewing and answering questions. Content selectively is added to courseware.

Java Development Program and Language
Oracle Development Platform
IBM WebSphere and Open Source Software
Open Source Software
Web Servers

SYS-ED/New York Schedule and Content Delivery Selection

Delivery Medium and Private Courses - Alternative to Source Software Companies

Content Delivery Selection

Alternative to the Training
by the Software Companies


The consensus is that there is a scarcity of textbooks in hybrid software environments and the documentation for open source software is not comprehensive or well written as commercial software. The courseware in SYS-ED's Java curriculum addresses these shortcomings. Subject matter has been developed into a structured sequence of performance and workshop objectives with industry- and client-specific examples. The courseware incorporates sample programs, skeleton programs, case studies, and workshops from consultancy assignments. It serves as a presentation framework for both web-based and classroom instruction.

Distance-learning Service

The distance-learning service is an extension of the SYS-ED schedule, inclusive of courseware and training aids. A distance-learning course is 65% lecture with pre and post course validation, review questions, examples, workshops, and website support services.


Enrollment requires a consultation with the manager sending the employee for the training. The prospective trainee needs to be qualified for the course and service transmission to the client location tested: bandwidth, firewall, base operating system, software requirements, web browser, and set up of machine exercises. SYS-ED reserves the right to deny enrollment in its courses.

Professional Java Training Service

Prior to scheduling a Java course, compare the quality of the Java training service that SYS-ED offers with the alternatives:
  • Review the Java learning paths.
  • Read the technology assessments and CFAQs - course frequently asked questions.
  • Utilize our Java skillset assessments.
  • Interview our systems consultant/instructor.

SYS-ED has been conducting courses in the public domain since 1980; however, there have been changes in the laws and regulations governing computer training in the state of New York. The schedule on our websites reflects a projected time frame for licensure with the New York State Department of Education - Bureau of Proprietary School Supervision and submission and approval of curriculum.

Java Platform: Architecture and Tools

Java has become the primary development platform for commercial, open source, and software tools and platforms produced by third-party software groups. It leverages the existing Java infrastructure to build highly intelligent and interconnected tools for web and application servers, databases, enterprise service buses, business process management and content management systems. The platform architecture was designed for the creation of tools for refactoring, debugging, development and graphical editors in products such as as Eclipse, NetBeans, IBM Rational, and Oracle JDeveloper. Oracle Corporation and IBM have been extending their use and promotion of the Java language. Leading commercial enterprises using Java within the cloud computing model include Google and Amazon Web Services.

User Interface and the Web
Application Technology Infrastructure
  Application Technology_and_Infrastructure  
Cloud and Web Services

These projects have been set up and provisioned by the Eclipse Foundation board of directors.

Eclipse Project Description
Grizzly Allows developers to utilize the Java NIO API which helps with the creation of scalable server applications.
Java API for RESTful Web Services JAX-RS is a Java programming language API specification that supports creating web services according to the REST: Representational State Transfer architectural pattern. Eclipse Project for JAX-RS provides the API and TCK  from the specification defined by JSR-370.  An implementation for JAX-RS is part of the proposal for Eclipse Jersey.
Jersey A REST framework that provides a JAX-RS implementation.  Jersey provides its own APIs that extend the JAX-RS toolkit with additional features and utilities to further simplify RESTful service and client development.
JSON Processing JSON-P is a Java API for processing JSON documents: parse, generate, transform and query . It produces and consumes JSON through streaming and allows for building a Java object model for JSON using API classes.
Message Service API for Java JMS API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware API for sending messages between two or more clients. It is a programming model to handle the producer-consumer messaging problem.
Mojarra An implementation of JavaServer Faces.
OpenMQ Message-oriented middleware platform.
Tyrus A reference implementation for Java API for WebSocket.
WebSocket API for Java Specifies the API that can be used for integrating WebSockets into applications on both the server side and Java client side. Starting from the specification defined by JSR-356; it povides the API and TCK for Java API for WebSocket.  An implementation for the WebSocket API is part of the Eclipse Tyrus project proposal.

Updates and additions to Java courses can be reviewed through the course search engine.

News for Immediate Release

Java and Mainframe Training Program

Training is required to develop Java applications in the IBM z/OS mainframe and web server environments. Some very experienced people will be new to web tools and object technologies; while first generation staff will be using TSO/ISPF and JCL in conjunction with Java for the first time. The courses will teach the Java language using IBM Rational Application Developer.

Program for Client A

  • Distance-learning will be used for introductory training on web tools, object oriented programming, and Java fundamentals.
  • SYS-ED classroom instruction will be used for Java for COBOL Programmers, DB2 for Java Programmers, Java Database Programming, and CICS Transaction Server: Web Enablement.
  • Oracle / Sun Microsystems course offerings will be used for specialized topics and Java certification testing.

Sixteen programmers, four database administrators, and four webmasters will complete the distance-learning training and then take the SYS-ED instructor-led courses. Based upon feedback from this group, adjustments will be made as needed.

On aOn a long range basis, we plan that all of the database administrators and programmers will be trained in Java and new web technologies essential to a  service oriented architecture coding framework. The exact schedule will depend on the workloads of staff members.

Evolving IT - Interrelated Technologies

Information technology training is more complex and challenging than ever before. Organizational enterprise has a substantial investment in infrastructure and applications specific to their business model. There are new industry standard protocols, web server and web enabled technologies, and development platforms which require a combination of development from scratch and integration with the existing mainframe and client/server systems and enterprise databases. There are long term implications regarding the strategic mix of investing in commercial and open source software, along with decisions on whether to maintain and upgrade the legacy applications, many now thirty or more years old, while retrofitting and transitioning to the new technologies. SYS-ED trained a significant portion of the first generation of DP and IT personnel. And look forward to training their successors in the 21st century.

Java Training Program Oracle Training Programs IBM CICS Transaction Server Training Program

Java Training

Java Courses
SYS-ED's Java courses are tough, but they're worth it. Our Java training is for Fortune 1000 companies, government municipalities, and healthcare providers to meet their staffing requirements and acquire specialized Java expertise.

SYS-ED's Java courseware is highly respected and draws upon an extensive library of courseware, sample programs and case studies to explain, demonstrate, and teach both native Java and its implementation in the commercial development platforms: IBM WebSphere and Rational and Oracle Corporation WebLogic and JDeveloper. We have the capability to provide design and programming examples across a different base operating platforms - Linux- and UNIX- variants and hybrid internetworking implementations.

Teaching is Our Business
Most computer training companies are divisions of large software or consulting companies. Not SYS-ED. Our only goal is to provide computer training for motivated professionals. This independence allows us to concentrate on teaching.

Our Teachers Know How to Teach
SYS-ED instructors combine teaching skills with experience developing Java programs in business enterprise: web server, databases, and middleware. After a course, they're available to answer questions.

Enrollment - SYS-ED Java Courses are Not for Everyone
No one is allowed to enroll in a SYS-ED Java course, without a consultation with our director of education. We review the operational objectives and project specifications for the organization evaluating whether to send its employee for the training. The employee only is allowed to register if they have the background corresponding to the course.

Java Training - Distance-learning or at Your Office
SYS-ED Java courses are provided over the Internet through a distance-learning delivery medium or classroom instruction on-site at the client location. These courses can include the identical workshops, case studies, and approach as offered through the SYS-ED schedule.

Technology Exchange Websites

SYS-ED's websites compile, organize, and present industry standard and software specific categorizations of information technology. They provide a framework for assessing knowledge transfer: learning paths, courseware, distance-learning, web-based training, and classroom instruction.

Footnote 1:
Solaris is a commercial operating system; there also is an open source version. There are unconfirmed reports that Oracle Corporation and Sun Microsystems is considering withdrawing support from OpenSolaris.

Footnote 2:
SYS-EDís core Java curriculum have been submitted to the New York State Department of Education - Bureau of Proprietary School Supervision for technical review and licensing.